Medical Degree Program in China - Cardiology

 1. Introduction

Cardiology is a medical program studying heart diseases; heart diseases are the common diseases of the circulatory system. Circulatory system is composed of the heart, blood vessels and neurohumoral tissue that regulates the blood circulation, circulatory system disease is also known as cardiovascular disease, including all of these tissues and organs diseases, belonging to common diseases in the internal medicine diseases, among which the most common is heart disease. Heart disease can significantly affect the patients’ labor.
2. Discipline Scope
Cardiology research includes basic knowledge of cardiovascular disease, heart disease medical history inquiry and the clinical manifestations, non invasive examination, invasive examination, arrhythmia, syncope and cardiac sudden death, heart failure and cardiogenic shock, heart disease interventional therapy, atherosclerosis, and lipid-lowering therapy, coronary heart disease, blood pressure abnormalities, heart valvular disease, congenital cardiovascular disease, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, pulmonary disease, infection endocarditis, pericardial disease, aorta and large artery disease, plateau heart disease, cardiac tumors, peripheral vascular disease, and other problems related with cardiovascular disease. Cardiology covers all the cardiovascular diseases, (including the newly discovered diseases), but the focus is on common cardiovascular disease, especially the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and some new diagnosis and treatment methods.
3. Study Objects
The heart is the engine of the whole blood cycle. The main structure is composed of the following parts: the heart cavity is divided into four chambers by the atrial, ventricular septal and atrioventricular valves. Two thin atriums of low pressure, i.e., the right and left atrium and their function is mainly receiving, storing and transporting back heart blood liquid by vein and pulmonary vein; two thick ventricular cavities of high pressure, i.e., right and left ventricle, their function is fully receiving the blood from the atrium and immediately finishing ventricular muscle contraction by the heart impulse, making the blood discharged into the pulmonary artery and the aorta and its branches, respectively finishing the blood input pulmonary to have gas exchange (oxygen uptake and emissions of carbon dioxide) and conveying to the organization for the metabolic needs. Heart wall is composed of the endocardium, myocardium and epicardium, the membrane of both inside and outside is very thin while the muscle layer is hypertrophy, cardiac systolic and shrinkage is carried out by the latter.
4. Symptoms
Heart palpitations, dyspnea, chest pain, edema, hemoptysis, apopsychia, cyanosis oliguria
Common signs are: heart enlargement, abnormal heart sound, arrhythmia, abnormal pulse, etc.
5. Examination Method
 ECG examination
 Cardiac function tests
 Cardiac blood pool imaging
 Cardiac catheterization examination
6. Causes of Heart Disease
(1).Congenital Heart Disease
Congenital heart disease is caused by abnormal development in the fetal period; lesions may involve the heart tissues.
(2).Acquired Heart Disease
After birth, the heart is affected by external or body internal factors, such as coronary atherosclerosis heart disease, rheumatism cardiopathy, hypertension heart disease, pulmonary heart disease, infectious heart disease, endocrine heart disease, blood disease heart disease, nutrition and metabolism heart disease.
7. Treatment of Heart Disease
(1). Etiology Treatment
Active treatment on the causes can receive good results for the patients with clear cause.
(2). Treatment of Anatomical Lesions
Interventional therapy or surgical treatment can be used to correct pathological anatomical changes; most of the current congenital heart diseases can be treated with surgery or interventional therapy.
(3). Treatment Pathophysiology
For the current cardiovascular diseases unable or difficult to cure, mainly correct its pathological changes.
(4). Rehabilitation Therapy
According to the patient’s cardiovascular lesion, age, physical strength and other conditions, use combination of dynamic and static methods, appropriate physical activity as early as possible in the recovery period has a good effect to improve the heart function, promote physical health. In the rehabilitation treatment, psychological rehabilitation should be paid attention to, release of ideological concerns, to strengthen the fight against the disease with confidence. Strike a proper balance between work and rest after returning to work or study and have a regular life.

2024 Admission is opening !

Anhui Medical University

Wenzhou Medical University

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