Medical Degree Program in China - Hematology

 1. Introduction

Hematology is an independent branch of medical science, which takes blood and hematopoietic tissues as main research subjects.
2. Classification
According to the different research contents and categories, hematology can be subdivided into: 
(1).Blood cell morphology: the study object is the form of the visible components in blood.
(2).Blood cell physiology: the research object is the origin, proliferation, differentiation and function of the cell.
(3).Blood biochemistry: Study on blood cell metabolism and plasma composition.
(4).The blood immunology: study object is blood cell immunity and humoral immunity.
(5).The genetic hematology: study object is genetic modes and information transmission of blood diseases.
(6).The blood rheology: the research object is blood flow and blood cell deformability.
(7).The experimental hematology: the study object is the experimental technique and method.
3. Clinical Hematology
The main study objects of clinical hematology are the original blood disease from the blood and blood forming tissues and the secondary hematologic disease caused by non hematologic diseases; it is a comprehensive clinical discipline combining the basic theory and clinical practice closely.
Clinical hematology focuses on the cause of disease, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation and treatment measures of various blood diseases (such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, hemophilia, deep vein thrombosis).
In addition, clinical hematology also studies hematological abnormalities caused by diseases of other clinical disciplines (such as liver disease, kidney disease, coronary heart disease, diabetes, cerebral vascular diseases, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, obstetrical disease, malignant tumor, genetic disease and surgery, severe trauma and drug treatment).
4. Blood
Blood is a red opaque and viscous liquid flowing in the blood vessels and the heart. Blood is composed of plasma and blood cells, blood plasma containing water, protein and low molecular substances, low molecular substances including many kinds of electrolytes and organic compounds, blood cells including three kinds of cells: red cells, white cells and platelets. The function of blood contains two parts: blood cell function and blood plasma function. It has four functions: transportation, regulating body temperature, defense, regulating body osmotic pressure and acid-base balance.
Blood contains a variety of nutrients, such as inorganic salts, oxygen and cell metabolism products, hormones, enzymes and antibodies, which has the function of nutritional organizations, regulating organ activity and defense of harmful substances. Blood stores human health information and many diseases need blood tests, including genetic diseases.
5. Blood Circulation
The rhythmic beating of the heart promotes blood to flow in a certain direction again and again in the cardiovascular system. The human blood circulation is closed, which is composed of two pathways, the body circulation and the pulmonary circulation. Blood is delivered from the left ventricle and flows to the body capillaries through the aorta and its branches, to carry out the exchange of substances with tissue fluid, to supply tissue cells with oxygen and nutrients and carrying away carbon dioxide and metabolites, then arterial blood changing into venous blood; joining to form upper and inferior vena cava and flowing back into the right atrium through all levels of veins, this cycle is called body circulation. Blood is delivered from the right ventricle and flows to pulmonary capillary through the pulmonary artery, to carry out gas exchange with alveolar gas, absorbing oxygen and emitting carbon dioxide, venous blood changing into arterial blood; then flow back to the left atrium through the pulmonary vein. The circulation is called pulmonary circulation.
6. Blood Types
Blood type is a genetic trait that is expressed in the form of blood antigens. Narrowly speaking, blood type specifically refers to differences between the individual red blood cell antigens; but now except red blood cells, antigen difference also exists among individuals of white blood cells, platelets and even plasma proteins. Therefore, the generalized blood group should include the individual difference of the antigen of blood components.
ABO Blood Types
ABO blood type can be divided into 4 types: A, B, AB and O type.
MN Blood Types
Another kind of blood group antigen on the red blood cell membrane is called MN antigen, that is, blood group glycoprotein A on the red blood cell membrane.
Leukocyte Blood Group - HLA
HLA is one of the most important types of human leukocyte antigen.
7. Blood Function
(1). To transport oxygen throughout the body, mainly responsible by the red blood cells.
(2). The delivery of nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, etc.
(3). To take away the waste, such as carbon dioxide, uric acid, lactic acid, etc.
(4). To provide the immune function, which is responsible by the white blood cells and antibodies.
(5). Information functions, such as hormone and tissue damage signals.
(6). To adjust the PH value of the body.
(7). Regulate body temperature.
(8). Hydraulic function.
8. The Importance of blood
(1). Transport materials
(2). To maintain the excitability of the organization
(3). Regulating function
(4). Defensive function
9. Symptoms
Wound bleeding
Vascular occlusion can lead to ischemia and tissue necrosis
Mediterranean anemia
Blood transmitted infectious diseases
10. Blood Transmitted Diseases

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