Medical Degree Program in China - Infectious Diseases

 1. Introduction

Infectious Disease is a kind of disease that can be caused by a variety of pathogens in human and human, animal and animal or human and animal. Most of the pathogens are microbes, a small part of the parasites; parasites are caused by parasitic diseases. Some infectious diseases, epidemic prevention departments must promptly grasp the incidence of the situation, and take timely measures, so after the discovery should be promptly reported to the local epidemic prevention department, known as the statutory infectious diseases. Infectious disease is an infectious disease that can be transmitted from one person or other species to another person or species through a variety of ways. Usually this disease can be borrowed by direct contact with infected individuals, infection of body fluids and excreta, infected the pollution to the object can be obtained by air borne, water-borne, food borne and contact transmission, soil borne, vertical transmission and so on.
2. Characteristics
Infectious diseases are characterized by pathogens, infectious and epidemic, often after infection immunity. Some infectious diseases are seasonal or local. The classification of infectious diseases is not uniform, can be classified according to pathogen, can also be classified according to the way of transmission. Prevention of infectious diseases should be taken to cut off the main communication link as the leading comprehensive measures. The transmission and prevalence of infectious diseases must have three aspects: infectious source (can discharge pathogens of human or animal), transmission (infectious pathogens of others) and susceptible population (of the kinds of infectious diseases without immunity). If you can completely cut off one of the links, you can prevent the occurrence and prevalence of infectious diseases. A variety of infectious diseases, the weak links are not the same. In the prevention should be fully utilized. In addition to the leading links to other aspects should also take measures, only in this way can better prevent a variety of infectious diseases.
3. Pathogens and Infectivity
Each kind of infectious disease is caused by a specific pathogen; the pathogen can be microorganism or parasite, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and other spirochetes. (Excluding fungi)
Infectivity is the main difference between infectious diseases and other categories of disease; infectious disease means that the pathogen can infect others through a variety of ways. Patients with infectious diseases infectious period is called the period of infection. Pathogens from the host excreted through a certain way, to reach the new easy infection in vivo, showing a certain infectious, its transmission intensity and pathogen species, quantity, virulence, easy feeling crowd immune status and other relevant.
Epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases
 Immunity after infection
After healing, the human body to the same kind of infectious disease caused by the pathogen does not feel, called immunity. Different infectious diseases, disease free state is different, and some infectious disease after a lifetime can be immune, and some can also be infected with, can be divided into several kinds of infection phenomenon.
Repeat infection
4. Infected
Infection is a process of interaction between the pathogen and the human body. Pathogens invade the body, break through the defense function, growth, reproduction, and cause the pathological and physiological changes.
Infectious disease types
Primary infection (infection primary)
Repeat infection (re-infection)
Mixed infection (co-infection)
Overlapping infection (infection super)
Secondary infection (infection secondary)
Removal of pathogens
Recessive infection
Dominant infection
Pathogen carrying status
Latent infection
The role of pathogens in the process of infection
Invasion force (invasiveness)
Virulence (virulence)
Quantity (quantity)
Variability (variability)
Pathogens from infected persons discharged, through a certain way of transmission, the introduction of susceptible persons and the formation of a new infection of the whole process. Infectious diseases can occur and spread in a population, which must have three basic links, which are the source of infection, the way of transmission and the susceptible population.
Air pollution
Fecal-oral route
Contagious infection
Vertical transmission
Blood infection
5. Diagnosis
Identification of pathogen
Confirm the popular range
Category a infectious diseases
Category a infectious disease is also known as the compulsory management of infectious diseases, including cholera, plague. Such infectious disease epidemic situation report time, patients, pathogen carriers of isolation, treatment and the epidemic, the epidemic area of the processing, are mandatory.
Class B infectious diseases
Class B infectious disease, also known as the strict management of infectious diseases, including: SARS, AIDS, viral hepatitis, polio, human infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza, measles, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, rabies, epidemic type B encephalitis, dengue fever, anthrax, bacteria and amoebic dysentery, tuberculosis, typhoid and paratyphoid, epidemic brain meningitis, pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus neonatorum, scarlet fever, brucellosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, Leptospira disease, schistosomiasis, malaria, infection with avian influenza A. For such diseases should be strictly in accordance with the relevant regulations and control scheme for prevention and control. The infectious atypical pneumonia, anthrax in pulmonary anthrax, infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza although be incorporated into class B, but can be taken directly from infectious diseases prevention and control measures.
Class C infectious diseases
Class C infectious disease, also known as for monitoring and control of infectious diseases, including influenza, popular parotitis, rubella, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, leprosy, popular local and typhus, Kala Azar, echinococcosis, filariasis, in addition to cholera, bacillary and amebic dysentery, malaria, typhoid and paratyphoid infectious diarrhea, hand foot and mouth disease.
Preventive measures of infectious diseases
Controlled source of infection
Cut off transmission
Protect susceptible population 

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