Medical Degree Program in China - Pulmonary Disease

 1. Introduction

Pulmonary diseases refer to diseases of the lung or pulmonary manifestations of systemic disease. The respiratory system consists of the respiratory tract (nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi) and alveoli. The lung is the main organ of the respiratory system, lung diseases are respiratory diseases.
In order to complete the metabolic, the body needs to intake oxygen from the air and exhaust carbon dioxide (gas exchange), the gas exchange is called breathing. Gas exchange between lungs and the environment and pulmonary gas exchange - gas exchange between blood and alveolar is called external respiration (also called the  pulmonary respiration), through the blood transport, gas arrives at the tissue and gas exchange between blood and tissue cells or tissue liquid is called internal respiration (also called tissue respiration). Therefore, there is a close relationship between lung and cardiovascular system. In addition to respiratory function, lungs also charge defense, immune and endocrine function of non respiratory. The etiology of lung diseases, viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms can be caused by infection, air pollution, smoking, caused by inhalation of dust or harmful gas. Some diseases are related with immune and genetic factors. The primary bronchogenic carcinoma is the most common among lung tumors. And the etiology of some diseases is unknown. Common symptoms include cough, expectoration, hemoptysis, dyspnea, chest pain, or infection and immune related diseases associated with fever, the symptoms seriousness and properties vary because of different diseases and different degrees.
The lung is a part of the respiratory system; the function is gas exchange, the excellent lung function is the security to maintain life. From the thoracic surgery, the lung is the largest organ in the chest, but also the organ with the largest number of lesion types and highest disease incidence in the thoracic surgery.
The human lung is divided into two parts, the left and the right, which occupy most of the volume of the left and the right thoracic cavity. From an anatomical point of view, the right lung can be divided into upper, middle and lower leaves; the left lung has only the upper and lower leaves. Each lobe has a separate bronchus and blood supply (arterial and venous), structure and function are relatively independent. In fiber structure, the lung is composed mainly of the "sponge" tissue, with very large surface, the inner surface is the site of gas exchange.
Common lung diseases: pneumothorax, pulmonary bulla, emphysema, pulmonary shadow (strictly speaking not a separate disease, but clinically often as a general term of many lung space occupy lesion) and lung cancer, pulmonary heart disease, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary abscess, pneumonia, neonatal pneumonia, children with pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, interstitial lung disease, respiratory system diseases and so on.
2. Lung Disease Symptoms
Chronic bronchitis of lung diseases
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Respiratory failure
Pulmonary abscess
Pulmonary tuberculosis
3. Typical Diseases
Lung cancer is the most common primary malignant tumor, most lung cancers originate from the bronchial epithelium, and therefore it is also known as bronchiogenic cancer.
(1) Smoking.
(2) Occupation factors.
(3) Chronic lung disease.
4. Clinical Manifestations
Symptoms of Primary Lung Cancer:
(1). Cough, mostly irritating cough
(2). Sputum with blood, more often blood sputum.
(3). Chest tightness, chest pain, general light symptoms, fuzzy positioning. The pain intensifies with a clear and constant positioning when the tumor invades the pleura and chest wall.
(4). Shortness of breath, tumor obstruction may cause pneumonia, atelectasis, pleural effusion, diffuse alveolar lesions.
(5). Fever, caused by obstructive pneumonia or cancerous toxin.
(6). Advanced patients may appear obvious cachexia.



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