Biomechanics is a branch of biophysics that applies the principle and method of mechanics to quantitatively study mechanical problems of organisms. Its research scope is from the biological whole to the system, organs (including blood, body fluids, organs, bones, etc.), from the birds fly, fish swim, the movement of the cilia and cilia to the plant body fluid transport, etc. The basis of biomechanics is the three laws: conservation of energy, the law of momentum, the conservation of mass, and the constitutive equation of description. The focus of biomechanical research is on the mechanics of physiology and medicine.
Biomechanical research should be also from mechanics, tissue science, physiology, medicine, which is macroscopic mechanical properties and microstructure of structures, which requires multi-disciplinary joint research or research personnel with multidisciplinary knowledge.
The most important difference between biomechanics and other branches of mechanics is that the object of study is biology. Therefore, it is very important to study the biomechanical problems in the laboratory. As an experimental object, there are generally in the body (vivo in) and vitro (in), and the results of the experiment also corresponding differences. The living state of the biological material, that is, the natural state of the biological material, in general, is in the state of stress. But after being free, in the so-called free state, it is different from the body in the state of the. In vivo experiments were divided into two types: the state of anesthesia and the state of non anesthesia. As for the isolated experiment, after the object being free, is according to the requirements can be carried out according to the overall position of the experiment, or further processing into a test piece for the experiment. Different experimental conditions and processing conditions have great influence on the experimental results.
1) Biological solid mechanics
Biological solid mechanics uses the basic theory and method of material mechanics, elastic-plastic theory and fracture mechanics to study the related mechanical problems in biological tissues and organs. In the approximate analysis, the strength theory and the state parameters of compression, tension and fracture of human and animal bones can be applied to the standard formula of the mechanics of materials. However, in both shape and mechanical properties, the bone is anisotropic.
2) Biological fluid mechanics
Biological fluid mechanics is a biological study on cardiovascular system, digestive, respiratory system, urinary system, endocrine, and swimming, flying and water dynamics, aerodynamics and boundary layer theory and rheology mechanics relevant problems.
3) Sports biomechanics
Sport biomechanics is the discipline that uses the basic principle of statics, kinematics and dynamics, combining the anatomy and physiology of human motion. The theory and method of the research of biology is a relatively early and deep.
4. Combination with Traditional Chinese Medicine
A considerable part of China's biomechanics research, combines with the traditional Chinese medicine. Thus, in the study of bone mechanics, pulse wave, non destructive testing, massage, qigong, biological soft tissue and other projects have formed their own characteristics.
For the biomechanical research first needs to understand the geometric characteristics of the biological material, and determination of the mechanical properties of tissues or materials and determine the constitutive equation, derived mainly differential equation and integral equation, to determine the boundary conditions and solving. For the solution of the above boundary problem, it is necessary to use physiological experiments to verify. If necessary, also need to establish a mathematical model so that the theory and experiment are consistent.