Science Degree Program in China - Biophysics

1. Introduction

Biophysics is an interdiscipline that combines physics and biology, is one of the important branches and fields of life science. Biophysics is the branch of biology applying physical concepts and methods to study relationship of biological hierarchical structure and function, physical and physical chemistry process of life activities and physical properties of material presenting in the process of life activity. Biophysics is to elucidate the movement rules of substances, energy and information of organisms in certain space and time.

2. Development and Application

1) Near infrared microscope

2) Flash X ray microscope

3) Light scattering microscope

4) Use the absorption of ultrasound energy to cause temperature changes in the moment to carry out the diagnosis of ultrasound echo images, using acoustic microscopy to show the human chromosome

5) Low angle X ray diffraction to study living cells

6) Nuclear magnetic resonance

3. Significance

1) Agriculture: to prevent the environment pollution, replacing pesticides and fertilizers in addition to considering the biological pathways (mainly microbial), more important is to find the inherent law of crop growth, according to the crop itself physical or physical and chemical laws to control plant growth and energy to the reasonable utilization.

2) Medicine: X - ray tomography (CT), ultrasound, nuclear magnetic imaging can accurately carry out tumor location, etc.

3) Industry: in order to achieve the high sensitivity of the industrial transformation of small automation, biological prototype (template) is an inexhaustible source.

4. Research Content

1) Molecular biophysics: the study of crystal structure, the study of the conformation of the molecules in solution, and the molecular dynamics of the molecules in solution.

2) Membrane and cell biology

3) Sensory and neural biology: ion channels, receptors, biological physics, neurotransmitters and their receptors, neural pathways and neural circuits, behavioral neuroscience.

4) Biological control theory and biological information theory

5) Theory biophysics

6) Photosynthesis, vision, the light energy conversion of the salt tolerant bacteria, the light form of the plant, the effect of the light dynamics, the biological luminescence and the chemical luminescence

7) Free radical and environmental radiation biology: the biological physics of free radical, ionizing radiation, biological magnetism and biological electromagnetism

8) Biomechanics and biological rheology: biological fluid mechanics, biological solid mechanics, other biomechanical problems, biological rheology.

9) Biophysical technology

5. Current Status of Research

1) Molecular biophysics is the basis of biophysics, also the focus of current research, the dominant

2) Membrane and cell biophysics are the application of the principles of molecular biophysics to the first goal of living system, in the language of molecular description to the structure and function of cell membrane

3) Carry out dynamic, in vivo testing and research, the development of related detection technology

4) The study of higher levels of complexity, such as the study of visual, brain and neural activity.

6. Research Tasks

1) Explore the main rules of the characteristics of the non equilibrium open system, which is to find the basis of the thermodynamics of life

2) Explain the phenomena of evolution and individual development in theory.

3) Explain the phenomenon of self regulation and self duplication (self organization phenomenon).

4) Reveal the nature of biological processes from the atomic and molecular level, to find the active links in the intracellular proteins, nucleic acids and other substances in the structure and biological function; in addition, but also in life research in supramolecular of higher level, at cell level and constitute the level of cell organelles of physical phenomena. Of course, all of these require the help and support of chemistry.

5) Design physical and physical chemical methods for the study of the biological function and the supramolecular structure formed by this kind of substance, and provide a theoretical explanation for the results obtained by using this method.

6) Provide a physical explanation for the occurrence and propagation of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and the reception of external signals by sensory organs, as well as a high degree of complex physiological phenomena such as photosynthesis.

7. Research Areas

1) Biological information theory and biological control theory

2) Theoretic biophysics

3) Bio acoustics and sound biophysics

4) Biological optics and optical biophysics

5) Biological electromagnetism

6) Biological energetics

7) Low temperature biophysics

8) Molecular biophysics and structural biology

9) Space biophysics

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