Cartology is the discipline that studies the theory and method of the expression, processing and transmission of map information, taking the visualization of geographic information as the core, discussing the making technology and using methods of map.
Cartology is the science that studies the theory, preparation technology and application method of map, the science that studies map graphics reflect and reveal the space distribution and mutual contact and dynamic change, technology and art combining of a variety of natural and social phenomena. The nation's territory can be expressed through map, text and other forms. Among them, the map is the most commonly used to represent and the main form in the national territory. The scope and boundary of national borders, all levels administrative regions, administrative centers and major cities can be expressed intuitively on the map.
2. Research Objects
Research object of cartology is the spatial information of the structure and characteristics of all the natural and social phenomena on the earth surface, including the macroscopic and microcosmic, concrete and abstract, reality and history all spatial information, involving in many areas like earth science, biology science, environmental science, and with the expansion of human understanding, research object of cartography forwards to outer space and deep crustal extension.
3. Research Directions
Explore taking map as the carrier and the transmission tool of the spatial information, according to the laws of mathematics, space model is built according to the proportion, use symbol system and the best feeling effect expression human geographical environment of scientific knowledge; comprehensive analysis of natural and social phenomena of spatial distribution, internal relations and time change; research map compilation and application of the principle, method and craft, technology.
4. Research Branches
In the history of cartography, several branches and fields gradually form, such as the history of cartography, map projection, map aesthetics and map cartography. After the nineteenth century, it can be divided into two major areas: ordinary and special maps, and gradually develop into the general cartography and thematic cartography. Thematic cartography is further development and differentiation of various branches of multi-level and field. By the use, it is divided into two major areas: general maps and special maps.
Modern cartology studies the map from information theory point of view, the map is considered to be the information carrier for human understanding the nature, the objective existence of the geographical environment of the conceptual model. Map as a kind of information carrier, refers to through the process of manufacture and application of map, gathering a large number of natural and economic phenomenon of the location, morphology and dynamic and internal links of information, then to be concentrated, replication, storage, transfer, so that readers can feel, measurement, understand and use.
The task of cartology can not only meet the original mapping data of geographical circle with a variety of rough machining; but also pays attention to the development of a high level of knowledge intensive product design, providing a forecast map for the macro planning and decision-making and engineering design, construction and evaluation of benefits.
6. Structure System
(1) Theoretical cartology (theoretical basis of cartology)
Cartography introduction, map model theory, the theory of map information, map transmission theory, mathematical cartography, map symbol, map perception theory, integrated graphics theory, theory of cartographic generalization;
(2) Cartography (mapping method and technology)
General cartography, thematic cartography, remote sensing cartography, computer aided cartography, map making and printing science;
(3) Application (the principle and method of map application)
The basic function of the map, the evaluation of the map, the practical application of the map, the method of map analysis, the use of map analysis steps, the use of map analysis method, the automatic analysis and processing of map information.
1) Ordinary map: topographic map, general geographic map
2) Thematic maps: natural maps, geological maps, geophysical maps, topographic maps, climate maps, land hydrology maps, soil maps, vegetation maps, animal maps, marine maps
3) Social map: economic map, the administrative zoning map, map of population, economic map, industrial map, map of agriculture, transportation map, map in post and telecommunications, finance, trade and financial map, the tertiary industry map, map of education and scientific research, medical care map, cultural maps, historical maps
4) Environmental maps: maps of environmental pollution and environmental protection, natural disasters, maps, maps, maps, diseases and medical geographic maps, and global changes.
5) Special maps: teaching maps, navigation maps, aerial maps, aerial maps, tourist maps, road maps, maps, media maps, military maps
6) Particular maps: digital map, three-dimensional map, screen tactile map map (Braille map), plastic silk map, map of Arts and crafts, light maps, map microfilm multimedia electronic map, the Internet map
7) Atlas and map series: atlas, map series
8) Map search: compared with the normal search mode, the map search is more iconic.
1) Information theory
2) Cartography transmission theory
4) Model theory
5) Cognitive theory
6) Feeling theory
9. Development Trends
Intelligent: including map information source information acquisition, map production process and the intelligence of geographic information expression, etc.
Virtual: cartography future expression of cartographic objects are not necessarily objective existence of the entity, a lot of content will be virtual, simulation, multi-dimensional simulation.
Multi polarization of functions: map features from the expression of the law of the law of geographical features, extended to the knowledge discovery, spatial analysis, dynamic display monitoring, comprehensive evaluation, early warning, etc.
The identity of the subject and object: with the development of science and technology, promote the continuous improvement and innovation of map’s production technology, map making will become more and simpler, so is the map makers. Map users are becoming more common.
Global integration: with the implementation of the strategy of digital earth and propulsion, will achieve global map seamless mosaic and the World Wide Web Unicom, the map in the earth and the earth can be integrated, global integration.
Map, RS, GIS and GPS integration: the database is the link of digital map, RS, GIS and GPS technology and the common basis, with the continuous development of the technology means, will make it in the category of scientific information fusion and the tendency of integration, in order to play a role in the maturation of geo information science and digital earth.
10. Relationship between Cartology and Other Disciplines
Cartology as a regional discipline, its main base is geoscience. The field exploring, survey of all these areas such as geography, geoscience, biology, environmental science and other areas cannot be separated from the map.