The climate system is a unified physical system including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, land surface, cryosphere and biosphere, which can determine the climate formation, climate distributions and climate changes.
The climate system is composed of five parts, the atmosphere, the ocean, the land surface, the snow cover and the biosphere. Solar radiation is the main source of energy for this system. Under the action of solar radiation, a series of complex processes are generated in the climate system, which is closely connected to an open system through the material exchange and energy exchange.
2. System Structure
1) The atmospheric circle: the atmosphere is the most active and the biggest change in the climate system.
The atmosphere is made up of a variety of gases; in addition, there are some solid impurities and liquid particles suspended;
Atmospheric structure: the troposphere, stratosphere, middle layer, layer, heat dissipation layer
2) The hydrosphere
Hydrosphere includes the oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater and surface of any liquid water, the ocean in climate formation and variation is the most important.
3) Land surface
The lithosphere and the terrestrial surface, the time scale of the variation of the lithosphere, the dynamic and thermodynamic functions of the land surface
The cryosphere includes continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers, sea ice and snow ground etc.
The biosphere is sensitive to climate change, which in turn affects the climate.
3. Basic Properties
1) Complex, highly nonlinear, open giant system
2) Thermodynamic and kinetic properties
4) Feedback process
4. System Evolution
Multi spatial scale of climate system change
Multi time scale of climate system change
5. Climate State
The climatic state is the average statistical characteristic of all the components of the climate system in any particular time period.
(1) It points out that the material base of the climate is the climate system, not just the atmosphere; it is different from the weather system;
(2) The climate is a historical concept, it is linked to a specific time period, and there is no absolute climate concept;
(3) The climatic conditions of a certain period of time are the average statistical characteristics of the various attributes of the climate system during this period; the weather is the synthesis of the meteorological elements and weather phenomena in the atmosphere in a short time or in a short period of time.