Genetics is the science that explores the laws of biological heredity and variation in the field of natural science, a discipline that studies the structure, function, variation, transmission and expression rules of gene. The concept of parent and child in genetics is not limited to the parents or children or a family, but also can be extended to include many family groups, which is the research object of population genetics. In genetics, the concept of parent child can also be used as a unit. In vitro culture of cells can maintain some genetic characteristics of the individual, such as some of the enzymes. The study of the genetics of isolated culture cell belongs to somatic cell genetics. The concept of paternity in genetics can also be extended to DNA replication and even mRNA transcription, which is the subject of molecular genetics research.
Genetic studies biological origin, evolution and development of gene and genome structure, function and evolution and its laws, has experienced the Mendel classical genetics, molecular genetics and entered the period of systematic genetic research.
2. Research Scope
The research scope of genetics includes three aspects: the nature of genetic material, the transmission of genetic material and the realization of genetic information. The transmission of genetic material, including genetic material replication, chromosome behavior, genetic laws and the number of genes in the population changes, etc.
3. Program Branches
To classify according to the study issues, cell genetics is the combination of cytology and genetics; Developmental genetics studies the genetic control of individual development; behavior genetics is the genetic basis of behavior; immune genetics studies the genetic basis of immune mechanism; radiation genetics is dedicated to the study of genetic effects of radiation; pharmacogenetics is devoted to the study of people respond to drugs genetic rules and material basis, and so on.
The subjects of genetic research from the perspective of population include population genetics, ecological genetics, quantitative genetics, evolutionary genetics, and so on. Population genetics commonly use mathematical methods to study group gene dynamics, studies gene mutation, natural selection, population size, mating system, migration and drift and other factors impact on the balance of population gene frequency and gene; ecological genetics research is biological and environmental biology and mutual adaptation or genetic basis, often to field work and laboratory work to combine study of polymorphism, and mimicry, so as to verify the population genetics research conclusion; evolutionary genetics research contents include the origin of life, the genetic material and genetic code and genetic mechanism of evolution and speciation genetic bases. Species formation is also closely related to population genetics and ecological genetics.
Medical genetics is the branch of human genetics, it studies the genetic rules and essence of hereditary disease; clinical genetics is the study of the diagnosis and prevention of genetic diseases; eugenics is application of genetic principles in improving human genetic quality. The main research objects of the population genetic or quantitative genetics are quantitative characters, and the economic traits of crops and livestock are mostly quantitative characters, so they are the theoretical basis of animal and plant breeding.
4. Research Methods
Hybridization is one of the most common means of genetic research, so the length and size of the life cycle are the factors to consider in the selection of genetic material. Biochemical methods have been widely used in almost any branch of genetics, which is more essential for molecular genetics. The recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering technology in molecular genetics has gradually become a powerful tool in the research of genetics.
Systems theory, biotechnology of group, computational biology and synthetic biology are the research methods of system genetics.
5. Genetic Process
1) Gene expression
2) Congenital and acquired
3) Gene regulation
6. Gene Abnormality
1) Single gene abnormality
2) Chromosome inheritance
3) X chain gene
4) Codominant inheritance
5) Mitochondrial gene
7. Training Objectives
1) The program trains advanced professional talents in genetics.
2) Master the basic theory and system of the discipline of the specialized knowledge, familiar with the development trend of the discipline, but also to master certain knowledge of the relevant disciplines.
3) Master the basic skills and methods of scientific research, and have the ability to do scientific research independently.
8. Research Directions
1) Molecular genetics of
2) Number and population genetics,
3) Cell inheritance
9. Main Courses
Cell engineering, gene engineering, bioinformatics, molecular genetics, molecular biology, quantitative genetics, population genetics, cell genetics