Geomorphology is the discipline that studies the earth's surface morphology features, genesis, distribution and evolution rules, also known as topography. It is a branch of geography, also a part of geology. Geomorphology has practical significance for engineering construction, agricultural production, mineral exploration, natural disaster prevention and environmental protection.
A lot of geomorphology research is devoted to clarify the landform genesis. This kind of research concentrates on shaping and changing earth surface original terrain elements of those forces. These forces include tectonic movement and the earth surface movement (for example landslide and rock fall), but also relates to the wind, ice, river ice, weathering of rivers, erosion and rock debris sedimentation. More attention is paid to the impact of human activities on the natural environment.
2. Terrain Classification System
Geomorphology proposes many terrain classification systems. Some classification systems describe and classify the terrain features mainly according to the process of forming and changing the features of the terrain. Other classification systems also consider additional factors (such as surface rock characteristics and climate change), and include a terrain development stage that is one aspect of the evolution of the geological history.
3. with Other Disciplines
Geomorphology is closely related to a lot of disciplines on natural process. Fluvial landforms and coastal geomorphology mainly depend on fluid mechanics and sedimentology; research on block movement, weathering, the action of the wind and the soil is by virtue of atmospheric science, soil physics, soil chemistry and soil mechanics; study on certain types of terrain needs to use the principle and method of the science of geophysics and volcanic; research on effects of human on topography should rely on a branch of geography and human ecology.
4. Research Content
The morphological characters of the earth's surface and the formation dynamic, the law and distribution of occurrence and development of the earth's surface morphology, as well as the research on the sediment which composes the accumulation landform and so on.
5. Branch Disciplines
Morphotectonics includes static tectonic geomorphology and active tectonic geomorphology, among which static tectonic landforms include fold tectonic geomorphology, tectonic geomorphology, lava tectonic landforms, active tectonic landforms including active fold and fault activities of various secondary landform. According to the difference of the landform, the material composition and the process of the landform, morphotectonics can also be divided into the karst landform, the loess landform, the granite landform and so on.
2) Dynamic geomorphology
3) Climate geomorphology
Climatic geomorphology mainly includes glacial geomorphology, ice edge geomorphology, Aeolian geomorphology, the distribution of these types of topography are influenced by climatic conditions with obvious latitude, and with the latitude variation of vertical zonality.
4) Applied geomorphology
6. Research Methods
1) It is not enough for geomorphology research and application only depending on qualitative description method; quantitative methods must be used to study the geomorphic processes, landform and the formation of the relationship between the factors.
2) For some external geomorphic processes, such as riverbed evolution, sand movement and river mouth change began sink, wind tunnel simulation experiment, application function, probability theory, mathematical statistics, mathematical logic, control theory and fluid mechanics, mathematics, physics method analysis research.
3) The telemetry and remote sensing technology for some landform processes, including the dynamic monitoring of the land location and remote sensing (using aviation, satellite remote sensing image, etc.).
4) Use the radioactive isotope for many geomorphic events formation times, thermoluminescence, paleomagnetic method determination from time, influence factors more accurately reconstruct the landforms in the history of the development, and then forecast the macro trends.
5) Geomorphologic mapping technology has made great progress; geomorphologic map develops towards quantitative, standardization and standardization direction.
7. Branch Disciplines
Natural geography, geomorphology, dynamic geomorphology, tectonic geomorphology, climate, geomorphology, application geomorphology, plant geography, animal geography, glaciology, cryopedology, ancient geography, hydrology, geography, soil chemical geography, comprehensive physical geography, human geography, economic geography, agricultural geography, industrial geography, commercial geography, transportation geography, tourism geography, population geography, ethnic geography, settlement geography, rural geography, city geography, social geography, cultural geography, medical geography, political geography, military geography, cartography, toponymy, theoretical geography, historical geography, regional geography, applied geography