Marine Ecology is the science that studies marine organisms and the relationship between marine organisms and the marine environment. It is a branch of ecology, and also a major component of marine biology. Through the study of the breed, growth, distribution and changes in number of marine organisms in the marine environment, and interactions between organisms and environmental, to clarify the law of biological oceanography, provide scientific basis for marine biological resources development, utilization, management, and aquaculture, marine environmental protection and ecological balance, etc.
2. Subject Purpose
Rationally develop and use marine resources and protect the marine environment, maintain the balance of the ecosystem.
3. Research Objects
The research objects of marine ecology are the individual, population, community and the whole marine ecosystem.
1) Individual ecology takes biological individual as the object to study the relationship between organisms and environment, especially the adaptability of organisms to the environment.
2) Population ecology is the study of the biological characteristics of marine animal and plant populations, including reproduction, development, supplement, growth, mortality and population dynamics and its relationship with the marine environmental factors. In addition, the regulation, spatial distribution and resource units of the population were also studied.
3) Community ecology is the study of the characteristics of a certain habitat in the Mediterranean Sea, the relationship between each other and with the environment, the formation and development of the community, etc.
4) Ecosystem ecology focuses on the whole nature consisting of the interactions between marine biological communities and their habitat environment and analyzes law system in the energy flow and material circulation, prediction of human impacts on marine ecosystems.
4. Theoretical Basis
1) The performance of the unity of the organism and the environment in the process of the formation history of the biological population and the biological community
2) Among the relationship between organisms and environmental factors, one of which is the main, play a decisive role, and the other is in a secondary position;
3) The main aspects of the contradiction between the biological and environmental factors;
4) The main environmental factors, the importance and role of various environmental factors in different conditions and different time will be changed;
5) The relationship between organisms and the environment is relative, the significance and role of environmental factors are determined by the special relationship between the organism and the environmental factors;
6) Any adaptation is relative, that is to say, any adaptation has its limitation and non adaptability.
5. Specific Measures for Comprehensive Management of the Ocean
1) Use biological treatment for water pollution;
2) Use wetlands for water pollution control;
3) Strengthen the ecological construction;
4) Strengthen water quality monitoring;
5) Control pollution sources;
6) Establishment marine nature reserves.
At present, study on marine ecosystem mainly uses modern system science theory and analysis technology, comprehensively studies and analyzes deeply marine ecosystem, establish a mathematical model of the ecosystem, in order to predict the effect of forecast anthropogenic changes to the marine environment and resources, provide scientific basis for resources exploitation, utilization, development and environmental management, renovation.