Microbiology is one of the branches of biology. It is the science that studies the basic rules of the morphology and structure, growth and reproduction, physiological metabolism, genetic variation, ecological distribution and taxonomy evolution of all kinds of small organisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, Rickettsia, mycoplasma, chlamydia, helicoid protozoa and unicellular algae) in the molecules, cells or the population level and its application in fermentation industry, medicine and biological engineering fields.
Microbial groups are very complex, including: no cell structure virus, viroid, virusoid, etc.
Bacteria, actinomyces, rickettsia, chlamydia, which belong to the prokaryotic
The yeast and mold, the single cell algae, protozoan and so on, which belong to eukaryote
3. Program Branches
1) By the study of rules of basic life activities of microbial for the purpose, the overall discipline is called general microbiology, the branch such as microbial taxonomy, microbial physiology, microbial genetics, microbial ecology and molecular microbiology.
2) According to study microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi (Mycology), virology, prokaryotic biology, autotrophic biological anaerobic bacteria and biology and so on.
3) By microorganisms in the environment such as soil microbiology, microbial ecology, marine microbiology, environmental microbiology Water Microbiology and the universe in microbiology.
4) According to the application field of the microorganism to study applied microbiology (applied microbiology), department of industrial microbiology, agricultural microbiology, medical microbiology, medical microbiology and diagnostic microbiology, antibiotics, food microbiology.
5) According to the interdisciplinary cross and fusion such as chemical microbiology division of microbiology, microbial biotechnology, microbial taxonomy, numerical taxonomy of microbial, microbial geochemical and microbiological information.
6) According to the experimental method, technical points, such as experimental microbiology, microbiology research methods, etc.
4. Microbial Characteristics
1). Small volume, larger than surface area
2). Absorption a lot and fast transformation
3). Vigorous growth, fast breeding
4). Strong adaptability, easy variation
5). widely distributed, many types
6). Easy mutation, resulting in mutation
1) In the circulation of natural substances
2) Air and water purification, sewage treatment
3) Industrial and agricultural production: bacteria, metabolites, metabolic activities
4) Contribution to life science
6. Research Directions
Fungi and lichens, microbial resources, classification, system, diversity, population genetics and evolution, collaborative mechanism of molecular metabolism, environmental microbiology, industrial microbiology, system of biotechnology, microbial physiology and, microbial physiology, microbial metabolomics, micro ecology, microbial biochemical engineering, molecular virology, molecular immunology.
7. Specific Applications
Modern clinical microbiology is a combination of clinical medicine, basic medicine and preventive medicine, and it is also one of the important and mature specialty of laboratory medicine. The newly emerging discipline requires the combination of a combination of Microbiology and laboratory technicians to work with four specific tasks:
(1) Make a rapid and accurate inspection report on microbial samples to meet the clinical needs;
(2) The antimicrobial resistance of various tests, accepted antimicrobial rational drug use of consultation;
(3) Closely combine clinical, and clinicians to discuss, research and treatment on infectious diseases.
(4) Participate in the management of rational use of antimicrobial agents and monitoring, control and management of hospital infection. This requires clinical microbiology workers not only to complete the laboratory work, but also to complete the relevant clinical work, to become the infection control and clinical application of antimicrobial agents of staff and consultants.
8. Course Introduction
1) Basic microbiology
Mainly introduces the structure characteristics, isolation and culture characteristics of microorganisms, the pathogenicity of microorganisms, the fermentation kinetics of food microorganisms, and the latest research progress and research results.
2) Advance in animal pathogenic microbiology
The main introducer, livestock important pathogens of genomics and proteome study, microbial virulence factors, food microbial metabolism and breeding mechanism, key references, livestock Microbiology and field of food microbiology front and dynamic.
3) Research advance in animal immunology
Focuses on animal immune cells of the occurrence, differentiation, surface markers, classification and function of antigen recognition and processing provided a mechanism, antibody structure and diversity of the generation mechanism, the mechanism of humoral immune factors, organizational compatibility of complex gene and its encoded molecules and immune response, the regulation of the immune response, infection and immunity, modern immunology technology and its application in the identification of pathogen and disease diagnosis, biological products and diagnostic reagent development and utilization.
4) Microbiology experimental technology
Common isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms; fermentation technology of food microorganisms
5) Immunology laboratory technology
Monoclonal antibody and cell immune detection technology principle, application prospect and scope, master the preparation process of monoclonal antibody and cell immunology detection method.
6) Recombinant DNA Technology
The basic principle and main application technology of DNA recombination
7) Molecular biology
Teach the material basis of biological heredity, the process of DNA replication, transcription and its regulation and molecular mechanism