Science Degree Program in China - Mineralogy, Petrology, Mineral Deposit Geology

1. Introduction

Mineralogy, Petrology, Mineral Deposit Geology is the basic discipline of earth science, to study the earth structure, material composition and its evolution, which has important scientific and practical significance for guiding the geological survey of the related region and finding mineral resources. Mineralogy, petrology, mineral deposits are all the science that study earth material. Mineralogy not only studies the natural output of the natural world, but also studies the process and artificial minerals, as well as the study of mineral materials and mineral materials related to these minerals. Petrology studies all kinds of rocks produced by the nature and mineral deposit geology is the subject that studies the distribution, formation condition and causes of mineral resources for human survival.

2. Mineralogy

Mineralogical is the subject that studies mineral chemical composition, crystal structure, morphology, nature, time and space distribution, formation, evolution history and purpose, often called mineral petrology together with petrology.

1) Application

Many production sectors, such as mining, metallurgical chemical industry, building materials and pesticide and fertilizer, precious stones and some of the cutting-edge science and technology are inseparable from the mineral raw materials. Therefore, mineralogical study not only has theoretical significance, but also has important practical significance for the development and application of mineral resources.

2) Research Area

Mineralogy is the basis for the search, development and application of mineral raw materials and materials. Therefore, it has very close relationship with the geology of mineral exploration, mining, ore dressing, metallurgy and material science. In addition, the use of mathematics, chemistry and physics of the theory and technology, and mutual penetration and combination, also produced a new edge disciplines such as mineral physics. Mineralogy research field increasingly expanded by crustal minerals to mantle minerals and other celestial bodies of cosmic mineral, from natural minerals to synthetic minerals; mineralogical research content from the macro to the micro depth development, from the main group to trace elements and by the atomic arrangement of flat are crystal structure to localized specifically to the crystal structure and to intra atomic electronic and nuclear fine structure.

Mineralogy research results are applied except in geology research and mineral finding, mineral research goal is obtaining mineral materials with special performance; this research has broad prospects for development.

3) Branches

Mineral morphology, genetic mineralogy, experimental mineralogy, structural mineralogy, mineral physics, optical mineralogy, mineral materials science, and others

4) Research Methods

Field research methods include the field geological survey of minerals and mineral sample collection. There are a lot of indoor research methods. The naked eye observation of specimen includes binocular microscope observation and simple chemical test, is the necessary foundation for mineral research. Polarized light and reflection microscope observation including mineral basic optical parameters are widely used for the identification of mineral species. The research methods of mineral crystal morphology include the crystal measurement by reflection angle measuring instrument and the observation of the micro topography on the surface of the crystal by interference microscope and scanning electron microscope. Methods for the detection of Mineral chemical composition are spectral analysis, conventional chemical analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and analysis, electron probe analysis, neutron activation analysis, etc. In phase analysis and crystal structure of minerals in the study, the most commonly used method is powder and single-crystal X-ray analysis, crop phase identification and determination of lattice parameters, space group and crystal structure.

3. Petrology

Petrology is the main subject of geology. Petrology is the subject that studies rock composition, structure, occurrence, distribution, origin and evolution history and its relation with mineralization. Lunar meteorites, cosmic source rocks, are the research objects of the petrology.

1) Subject Classification

Petrology belongs to the branches of geology, which is often divided into rock physics and petrography. The former mainly studies the causes of the rocks, in the early refers to the cause research of igneous rocks related; the latter is mainly identification of rock composition and structure, for the description and classification of rocks, also known as descriptive petrology and petrography.

2) Basic Tasks

Petrology study must grasp more petrography, regional geological data, fully understand all kinds of rocks between field relations, strengthen combination of rock and rock compositions (including the study of mineralogy and geochemistry), which further leads the objective existence of the formation conditions and rock tectonic history, and from the basic physical chemistry theory to clarify the internal relations and the root causes. In addition, from the viewpoint of global tectonics, the temporal and spatial distribution of magma formation, metamorphic formation and sedimentary formation are summarized and analyzed.

3) Branches

Igneous petrology

Sedimentary petrology

Metamorphic petrology

Industrial petrology

4. Mineral Deposit Geology

Mineral deposit geology studies the formation condition, formation mechanism and distribution law of ore deposits in the earth's crust, which is one of the main subjects in the geological science.

1) Research Objects, Main Tasks and Purposes

The object of study is to develop the national economy, which is of great value to the national economy. The main task of the study is to study the material composition, the source of ore-forming materials, the mechanism of formation and the distribution of time and space. The specific research content is the size, shape and material composition of the ore body, the formation conditions and ore controlling factors, the genetic types of the deposit and the industrial type of the deposit.

The purpose of the study is to find ore, exploration and exploitation and utilization of mineral resources in order to meet the needs of human society for the continuous development of mineral resources.

2) Research Content

Regional geological characteristics, the location of the deposit in the regional geological structure, the role of the area of sedimentation, magmatic, tectonic development and the favorable background of mineralization;

Geological features of the mining area, the rock, structure type and characteristics of the area, the output and distribution of the deposit;

The shape of the ore bodies and their spatial position control, the identification of the mineralization characteristics of the ore body inside and outside of the ore body;

The type of ore, the composition and structure of the ore, the existence form of the useful components, the factors affecting the ore quality;

Comprehensive study, determination of genesis and type of the deposit, evaluation of the deposit


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