Molecular Biology is the science that studies life phenomena at the molecular level, to clarify the nature of various life phenomena by studying the structure and function of biological macromolecules (nucleic acids and proteins). Research content includes various life processes, such as photosynthesis, the molecular mechanism of development, the mechanism of neural activity, the occurrence of cancer, etc.
Molecular biology is the front and growth point of biology. The main research fields include protein system, protein - nucleic acid system (the center is molecular genetics) and protein - lipid system (namely biological membrane).
The study of the structure and function of biological macromolecules, especially proteins and nucleic acids, is the basis of molecular biology. The application of modern chemistry and physics theory, technology and method has promoted the study of the function of the structure and function of biological macromolecules.
2. Difference from Biochemistry and Biophysics
1) Biochemistry and biophysics studies biological problems of different levels including the molecular level, cellular level, overall level and even the population level through chemistry and physics methods. Molecular biology is the study of the general law of life activity on the level of molecular (including multi molecular system);
2) At the molecular level, molecular biology focuses on the study of macromolecules, mainly including proteins, nucleic acids, lipid systems, as well as part of the polysaccharide and its complex system. And some small molecular substance in the biological transformation is the scope of biological chemistry;
3) The main purpose of the study on molecular biology is to clarify the basic feature biological that the whole world owns at the molecular level, which is the essence of the phenomenon of life; and the research of a particular organism or a certain organisms within a particular organ physical and chemical phenomena or change, belongs to the category of biophysics or biochemistry.
3. Basic Content
1) Protein system
2) Protein molecular structure
3) Molecular biology research
4) Protein - nucleic acid system
5) Protein - lipid system
4. Theoretical Guiding Significance
The achievement of molecular biology shows that the basic law of life activity is unified in all kinds of organisms. The central dogma and the genetic code of molecular genetics, in addition to individual exceptions, are also common in the vast majority of cases.
Physics achievements prove that atoms of all substances consist of a few elementary particles according to the same rules, which explains the structure of the material world, revealing the essence of the physical world, which leads to the development of the whole physics.
5. Related Applications
1) Paternity Testing
2) With the development of mankind themselves
3) Genetically modified food
Genetically modified foods (GMF) uses modern molecular biological technology to transfer some biological gene to other species, the transformation of biological genetic material, make it change towards the goal of people’s needs in shape and nutritional quality, consumer quality and so on.
6. Medical Relations
1) Molecular biology raises the whole medical science research to the molecular level
2) A major breakthrough will occur in cancer research
3) Genetic disease
4) Drugs and vaccines