Physical Chemistry is the discipline based on the physical principles and experimental techniques to study the properties and behavior of the chemical system, and to discover and establish the special laws of the chemical system. Physical chemistry is developed on the basis of two disciplines: physics and chemistry. It takes rich chemical phenomena and system as the object, a lot of theoretical achievements and experimental techniques of physics are adopted to explore, summarize and study the basic laws and theories of chemistry, which constitute the theoretical basis of chemical science. The level of physical chemistry reflects the depth of chemical development to a large extent.
With the rapid development of science and the mutual infiltration between various disciplines, physical chemistry and physics, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry have boundaries difficult to accurately divide in the content, which continuously generates new branches, such as physical organic chemistry, biophysics, chemistry, physics, and so on. Physical chemistry also has a close relationship with many non chemical subjects, such as physical metallurgy is actually metal physical chemistry.
2. Research Content, Methods and Characteristics
1) Macroscopic equilibrium properties of the chemical system
Based on the three basic laws of thermodynamics, studies the physical and chemical properties of the equilibrium state of the macro - chemical system in the state of gas, liquid, solid state, dissolved state and high dispersion state were studied. Since the equilibrium state is the premise, the time is no longer a variable. The branches of physical chemistry in this area include chemical thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, solution chemistry, colloid chemistry and surface chemistry.
2) Microstructure and properties of the chemical system
Taking quantum mechanics as the theoretical basis, research the molecular clusters and crystal structure, object body phase space structure of atoms and molecules and the surface structure, and between the structure and properties of relations and rules. The branches of physical chemistry in this area are structural chemistry, crystal chemistry and quantum chemistry.
3) The dynamic properties of the chemical system
Study the rate and mechanism of chemical change in the system caused by chemical or physical factors. At this time, time is one of the important variables which are closely related to the process. Belonging to the physical and chemical branch of chemical kinetics, dynamics of chemical reactions, catalytic science and technology, photochemical, electrochemical, magnetic chemical, ultrasonic chemistry, chemical (in tribochemistry as the representative), etc.
3. Development Trends
The achievements of physics and mathematics, together with the rapid development of computer technology have provided a new field for the development of physical chemistry. Due to the application is no longer limited to the analytic solution and the numerical method, making solid, elastomers and other non ideal system have become the research object of physical chemistry, adds a new theoretical weapon for materials science and technology research and are more close to the actual project.