Solid mechanics is the branch of mechanics that studies the displacement, motion, stress, strain and damage of deformable solid under the action of external factors. Solid mechanics forms earlier in the mechanics and is more widely used.
Solid mechanics is a subject that studies the mechanical properties of solid mechanics. It mainly studies the performance of solid media under the action of external force, temperature and deformation, which is a branch of continuum mechanics. Generally includes the material mechanics, elastic mechanics, and plastic mechanics and so on. Solid mechanics applies a wide range of tensor to describe the stress, strain, and the relationship between them.
In solid mechanics, the application of linear material model is the most widely used, but a lot of material is with nonlinear characteristics, with the application of new materials and the original material reaching the limits of their application, the nonlinear model is applied more and more widely.
The research content of solid mechanics covers both elastic and plastic, both linear and nonlinear problems. In the early study of solid mechanics, generally it is assumed that the object is a continuous and homogeneous medium, but in recent years, the development of composite material mechanics and fracture mechanics, expanded the scope of the study. They study respectively inhomogeneous continuum and containing a crack on the non continuum.
In modern engineering, from aircraft, ships, tanks or buildings, bridges, dams, nuclear reactors to daily furniture, the structure design and calculation all apply principle and calculation methods of solid mechanics.
Due to the rapid development of science and technology and extending of the scope of the project, the solid mechanics is also in development, on the one hand to inherit the tradition of classical theory useful, on the other hand in order to adapt to the characteristics of the modern engineering to establish new theories and methods.
2. Research Objects
Deformable solid that solid mechanics studies is a simplified mechanical model. It is continuous, that is, in the space occupied by the solid space is filled with material continuously. If further simplified, it can be assumed that it is homogeneous and isotropic, and the resulting deformation is small.
According to the constitutive relation of the material, the deformable solid can be divided into elastic body, elastic plastic body, and viscoelastic body and so on. According to the geometric features of its shape, the deformable solid can be divided into the following three categories: the rod; the plate and the shell; space body (entity) and thin walled bar.
3. Branch Disciplines
1) Material mechanics
2) Elastic mechanics
3) Plastic mechanics
4) Stability theory
5) Structural mechanics
6) Vibration theory
7) Fracture mechanics
8) Mechanics of composite materials
4. Analysis Methods
In solid mechanics, experimental methods and mathematical methods can be used, and the experimental and mathematical methods can be used together.
The experimental method is to use mechanical, electrical, optical or other means to measure the required amount in the physical or model, or the results of the measurement to be converted and the amount of demand in the solid mechanics problem.
For hydraulic engineering, solid mechanics is mainly used in the mechanical analysis of the engineering structure. The results obtained (such as internal force, stress and displacement of the structure) can be used as the basis of design, so that the engineering structure can meet the design requirements of safety and economy. The method of mechanical analysis can be selected according to the type of structure or the simplified model. The structure of rod or rod which is often encountered in engineering is applied to mechanical analysis of material mechanics or structural mechanics. Mechanical analysis of solid, plate, shell and so on. The simplification of the engineering structure and the mechanical analysis can be different. Plate and shell can also be simplified as the structure of the structure, and the problem of structural mechanics is calculated. Some problems of the study should be applied to multiple branches of solid mechanics. For example, the research on the foundation beam needs to apply structural mechanics and elastic mechanics.