Space Weather refers to changes caused by solar activity of short time scale, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejection, acuteness activity, to the earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and upper atmosphere, satellite operation and safety, and human health, has a serious impact and harm, and broken communications. Relative to the ground weather, the space weather occurs more than 30 kilometers from the ground. The physical parameters involving in the space weather are very different from the atmospheric weather.
Space weather is a concept of near earth space environment change. It is quite different from the weather in the planet's atmosphere, involving the space plasma, magnetic field and radiation, and so on. "Space weather" is usually closely related to the magnetic layer of the near earth space, but it also studies the variation of interplanetary space. In our solar system, the space weather is mainly influenced by the wind speed and density of the solar wind, and the interplanetary magnetic field caused by the solar plasma. A wide variety of physical phenomena are and space weather, including geomagnetic storms and sub violence, in the Van Allen radiation with current, ionospheric scintillation, Aurora, and changes in the magnetic field of the earth's surface induced current.
1) The influence of space weather on human life
2) The influence of space weather on war
3. Space Weather Monitoring
1) Space weather ground monitoring
2) Satellite monitoring of space weather
4. Space Weather Modeling
Space weather model refers to the computer simulation of the space environment. Similar to the meteorological computer model, the space weather pattern is based on a finite set of data values, and the values of the overall or partial space weather environment in the described model are inferred. Each model can predict or partially predict the evolution of the environment over time. The computational model uses a series of mathematical equations to describe the physical processes involved.
5. Space Weather Disasters
Space weather disasters mainly involves the harm of high energy charged particles on the spacecraft, explosive solar activity have a serious impact on navigation, communication and positioning, (storm) on the transmission system and underground pipelines destruction of sudden changes of geomagnetic field, density of the upper atmosphere of the orbital lifetime of spacecraft. These disasters can cause the satellite operation, communication, navigation and the collapse of the power transmission network, resulting in various aspects of social and economic losses. Space weather changes directly affect the space technology as the representative of the people tired of science and technology development and social life more and more dependent on high technology.
6. Research Significance
Space weather is to adapt to the development of human technology and the birth. Its research object is space weather occurs, the development and the change rule and how to use these rules for space weather forecast, at the same time, space weather study of various space weather effects and avoid and reduce the space weather disasters and the ways.
Study on space weather to high-tech human activity "escort", to carry out space weather services, reduce or its ultimate aim is to avoid the loss and the harm of the disaster space. Space weather services include:
(1) Provide space weather products, conventional products: observational data, model, environmental regulations, effect analysis; special products (according to the specific needs of the user and special processing products): Forecast and warning and now casting and forecasting.
(2) The diagnosis and analysis of the effect - whether the abnormality or failure of the system is caused by the space weather factors or other engineering design, mechanical failure or software error.
(3) Suggested protective measures or improved engineering design.
(4) Adjust the operation procedures of the ground and space technology system and to take the strain measures.