Statistics is a comprehensive science through the search, sorting, analysis, description of data and other means to achieve inferring the nature of the measured object, and even predict the future. Statistics uses a lot of professional knowledge of mathematics and other disciplines; its application scope covers almost all areas of social sciences and natural sciences.
Statistics is a branch of applied mathematics, mainly through the use of probability theory to establish mathematical models, the observation system to collect data, conduct quantified analysis and summary, to make inferences and predictions, and provide basis and reference for the relevant decision-making. It is widely used in various disciplines, from the physical and social sciences to the humanities, and even used in the industrial and commercial and government intelligence decisions on. With the accelerated process of digitization, more and more people want to be able to sum up some empirical rules from a large number of data to provide some basis for decision making. Statistics is not just like the words on the surface, but the statistics, but contains the survey, collection, analysis, prediction, etc. The scope of application is very wide. Statistics is divided into three major professional directions: the direction of mathematical statistics, direction of economic statistics and the direction of application of statistics.
2. Main Terms
(1) Descriptive statistics: research data collection, processing and description of statistical methods.
(2) Inferential statistics: study how to use the sample data to infer the statistical method of the overall characteristics.
(3) Variable: each observation will have some characteristics of different results.
(4) Categorical variable: the observation results show that the results of a class of variables.
(5) Rank variable: also known as ordinal categorical variables, the observation results show that the variables of some ordered category.
(6) Metric variable: also known as quantitative variables, the observation results showed that the number of variables.
(7) Mean: mean is the average number, sometimes refers to the arithmetic average. This is relative to other ways of calculating the mean, the solution is to add up all the numbers, then the number is divided by the number of, which is measure of central tendency, or a method of average.
(8) Median: that is, the middle of the number, to find the median, the first need from small to large sort, sort after, and then look at the middle of the figure is what.
(9) Mode: the mode is the maximum frequency of the digital data.
3. Statistical Methods
1) Ratio measurements: owning zero value and the distance between data is equal to be defined;
2) Interval measurements: the distance between data is equal to be defined but its zero value is not absolute no but self defined (such as intelligence or temperature measurement);
(3) Ordinal measurements: the significance is not shown in its value but in its sequence;
4) Nominal measurements: the measured value does not have the amount significance.
4. Statistical Techniques
1) Fisher's Least Significant Difference test
2) Student's t-test
3) Mann-Whitney U
4) Regression analysis
6) Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
7) Spearman's rank correlation coefficient
5. Branch Disciplines
1) Main branches
Statistics history, theoretical statistics, statistical investigation and analysis theory, statistical accounting theory, statistical supervision theory, statistical prediction theory, statistical logic, statistics law, descriptive statistics, statistical inference, economic statistics, macroeconomic statistics, micro economic statistics, statistics, management science and technology statistics, rural economic survey, social statistics, educational statistics, culture with sports statistics, health statistics, judicial statistics, social welfare and social security statistics, the quality of life statistics, demographic, environmental and Ecological Statistics, natural resources statistics, environment statistics, ecological balance statistics, international statistics, international standard classification statistics, international accounting system and methodology system, international comparison statistics
2) Other disciplines
Biostatistics, business statistics, engineering statistics, psychological statistics, chemical statistics, archives statistics, social economic statistics, hydrological statistics, statistical archaeology, mathematical statistics, statistical linguistics, statistical physics, chemical statistics, sports statistics
3) Extension disciplines
Agricultural science, bio statistics, business statistics, data mining (applied statistics and graphics from the data acquisition knowledge), economic statistics, motor statistics, statistical physics, demographic, psychological statistics, educational statistics, social statistics, including all the Social Sciences, literature and statistical analysis, chemical and process analysis (all about chemistry data analysis and chemical science and Technology), sports statistics (especially baseball and hockey)
6. Main Application Areas
Social development and evaluation, continuous development and environmental protection, resource conservation and utilization, e-commerce, insurance actuarial, financial industry database construction and risk management, macroeconomic monitoring and prediction, government statistical data collection and quality assurance, statistical methods of molecular biology, statistical methods of the high-tech agriculture research, statistical methods of bio pharmaceutical technology, statistical method of regularity of epidemic research and exploration, statistical methods of human chromosome engineering research, quality and reliability engineering, etc.
7. Training Objectives
Statistics program mainly includes two types of professional directions: general statistics and economic statistics, cultivate senior specialized talents with good mathematics or mathematical and economic literacy, grasp statistical theory and methods, can skillfully use computers to analyze data, can engage in statistical investigation, statistical information management and quantitative analysis development, application and management in the business units and economy and management department, or in research and education department engaged in research and teaching.
8. Training Requirements
The students mainly study the basic knowledge required in mathematics, physics, mechanics theory and a professional direction learning specialized knowledge, strengthen experiment ability and computer application ability training, pay attention to the cultivation of the ability of theory analysis ability and applied mechanics. Receive the initial training in scientific research and engineering application, with good scientific literacy.
9. Knowledge and Ability
1) Master the basic knowledge of mathematics and physics, and have strong ability of analysis and calculation;
2) understand the general principles and knowledge of similar professional;
3) understand the new development of the professional range of internal medicine technology;
4) Master the basic method of data information, document retrieval and use of modern information technology to obtain information related; has certain ability of experimental design, creating experimental conditions, induction, collation, analysis of the experimental results, writing papers, participating in academic exchanges.
10. Main Courses
Mathematical analysis, algebraic geometry, mathematical experiment, ordinary differential equation, complex function, real variable and functional analysis, probability theory, mathematical statistics, sampling, random process, multivariate statistics, Fundamentals of computer application, programming languages, data analysis and statistical software, regression analysis, reliability mathematics, experimental design and quality control, econometrics, economic forecasting and decision making, financial mathematics and statistics of securities investment analysis, numerical analysis, data structures and algorithms, database management system, computer network system, system analysis and software design.
11. Learning Content
Data collection method, data processing method, data analysis method, on the basis of general face-to-face, teaching methods are supplemented by various types of case analysis, to improve the students' ability of practice, and more practice opportunities, such as to focus on a subject, designed questionnaire, data collection, and processing the data. Production practice, research training or graduation thesis (design), the general arrangement is 10-20 weeks.
12. Similar Programs
Mathematics and applied mathematics, information and computing science
13. Employment Directions
The main employment directions of statistics graduates include three parts: government departments (department of statistics, etc.), banks, insurance companies, securities companies and other financial sectors, market research company, consulting company, the company's market research department, the quality inspection departments of industrial enterprises.