Agrology takes the tectorium of the earth's surface which can grow green plants as the object to study the relationship between the law of material movement and the environment, which is a basic discipline of agricultural science. The main research content includes the composition of the soil; soil physical, chemical and biological properties, the occurrence and evolution of the soil; the classification and distribution of soil; soil fertility and soil development the improvement and protection etc. The purpose is to provide theoretical basis and scientific method for the rational use of soil resources, the elimination of soil low yield factors, and the prevention of soil degradation and improve the level of soil fertility.
2. Theoretical Basis
Agrology is the study of the complex bio-geochemical material on the earth's surface formed by the comprehensive function of soil biology, climate, parent material, topography, time and other factors, which can be used for plant growth; and the formation of its rocks and sediments compared with unique loose porous structure, chemical and biological properties; it is a dynamic ecological system, provides mechanical support, moisture, nutrients and air condition for plant growth; most of the microbial community support activities, to complete the life cycle of the substance; maintain all terrestrial ecosystems, the supply of food, fiber, water, building materials, construction and waste disposal sites to maintain the survival and development of human beings; by filtering out chemicals and toxic pathogenic organisms, to protect the water quality of groundwater, and provides waste recycling place and route or make it harmless.
3. Research Direction
1). Soil chemistry and soil fertility
2). Soil resources remote sensing and information system
3). Ecosystem nutrient cycle and its regulation
4). Soil environmental chemistry and environmental remediation
5). Soil carbon cycle and global change
6). Soil ecology
7). Soil physics
4. Research Methods
1) Orientation Research
That is selected a soil or a region in the field, on the soil of a session or process to determine the long-term and systematic observation, to study the dynamic changes and the trend of development and the influence on soil properties and fertility. The most commonly used method is the field biological test method and the drainage collection method.
2) Field Survey
In the field (farm), through the observation of the formation factors and the profile of soil, and combined with the comprehensive analysis of natural geographical environment and soil utilization situation, the basic characteristics of soil. This is one of the most basic traditional methods to study the formation, classification, distribution, soil fertility characteristics of soil and the soil mapping.
3) Laboratory Test
That is in the laboratory with a variety of instruments and equipment and greenhouse facilities on soil physical, chemical, physical, chemical and biological properties, quantitative or qualitative determination, or on soil fertility of biology (hydroponic culture, sand culture and soil culture) test and simulation test etc.
5. Program Branches
1) Soil Physics
Soil physics mainly studies the physical phenomena and the variation law of solid, liquid and gas in the soil. Contents include: soil water holding and moving and the effectiveness of plant, soil air exchange and composition, heat conduction and transformation, composition and arrangement of the solid phase of soil, soil mechanical properties and electrical and magnetic properties such as. Soil chemistry: the chemical composition and chemical changes of the solid and liquid phases and the reaction between the solid and liquid phases. The content includes the surface chemical properties of the soil solid particles and the cation exchange, the soil solution and the soil acidity and alkalinity, the oxidation reduction and so on.
2) Soil Biology
Soil biology mainly studies the activity of organisms (mainly microbial) dwelling on soil and its relationship with soil material transformation and circulation. Contents include soil microbial quantity, composition and distribution, biological cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and other elements, biological nitrogen fixation and organic matter decomposition and humus formation and on soil fertility, etc.
Soil fertility and plant nutrition: mainly study the relationship between the ability of mineral nutrients in soil and its influence factors and plant nutrition. The content includes the essence of soil fertility and its index, the intensity factor of soil nutrient and the capacity factor, the nutrition diagnosis of soil and plant, the requirement of main crops to soil fertility and so on.
3) Soil Geography
Soil geography mainly studies the relationship between soil and natural geographical environment is studied, including the formation, classification, distribution of soil and soil survey, mapping and so on.
4) Soil Mineral
Soil mineral mainly studies the structure, composition, properties and chemical reaction of soil minerals are mainly studied. Contents include clay minerals and oxides of quantity, composition and mutual reaction, in the soil of the various elements of the migration status, interactions between the clay and organic matter, mineral formation and transformation and mineral identification, etc.
5) Soil Management
Soil management mainly studies the effects of artificial measures on soil and crop production are studied, including tillage, fertilization, irrigation, drainage and other improvement and protection measures on soil fertility, productivity and crop yield.
6) Soil Chemistry
Soil chemistry mainly studies the chemical reactions and chemical processes in the soil, the chemical reactions and chemical processes between the components and the solid and liquid phases, as well as the chemical phenomena occurring at the interface between the ions (or molecules) in the solid liquid phase are studied, including the formation of soil minerals.