Biological Materials are high-tech materials used for the diagnosis, repair or improving the functions of human tissues and organs. It is a natural or artificial material to replace and repair the living tissues. Biological materials can perform, enhance or replace some of the functions that are lost due to disease or injury, but cannot restore the defective parts. Biological materials in the narrow sense refer to the natural biological materials that form in the biological process of the material. A broad sense of biological material is a natural or artificial material used to replace or repair tissue and organs.
Biological materials science is a science that involves the structure, properties and the relationship and law of the biological materials. Its main purpose is to develop bionics high-performance engineering materials based on natural biological material micro assembly, biological function and formation mechanism, and to develop new medical materials used for human tissue and organ repair and replacement. The main research contents include: formed material structure in the biological process, the principle of biological mineralization, material and biological phase solubility mechanism, the principle of self assembly, self repair of biological materials.
Biological material, also known as biological technology or biological technology, is the comprehensive science and technology that uses the principle of biology and engineering, directionally build new biological species with special functions on the specific functions of biological materials, organisms. Biological engineering develops on the basis of molecular biology, cell biology, including genetic engineering, cell engineering, enzyme engineering, fermentation engineering, they contact with each other, which are based on genetic engineering. It is possible to produce more and better biological products according to the wishes of human beings only through genetic engineering. And the results of genetic engineering, only through fermentation and other projects may be converted into products.
3. Related Products
A lot of cheap drugs to prevent and cure human diseases can be produced through biological engineering in medicine, such as insulin, interferon, growth hormone, hepatitis B vaccine, etc. The application of biological engineering in food and light industry is very wide. The bio engineering technology, breeding causes great changes, such as the transfer of resistance genes to tobacco have produced new variety of tobacco that prevent pests; the rhizobium nif gene of lower organisms transfers to the cells of higher plants, so that they can create their own nitrogen fertilizer, and achieve certain results.
A series of properties that should be possessed by the biological material that has completed a biological function
According to the purpose, mainly divided into:
Bear or transfer load function
Control the flow of blood or body fluids
Electrical, optical, acoustic transmission function
Referring to the effective and long-term biological materials in the body or body surface to exercise their ability to function, biological behavior for the characterization of biological interactions with organisms
According to the material and biological contact parts:
Blood compatibility, materials used in the cardiovascular system and blood contact, mainly to study the interaction with blood, and cardiovascular tissue and organ contact. The main research and organization of the interaction are also known as the general biocompatibility.
Mechanical compatibility studies the consistency of mechanical properties and biological properties.
Biological materials are widely used and there are many varieties, classification methods. Biological materials include metal materials (such as alkali metals and alloys, etc.), inorganic materials (bioactive ceramic, hydroxyapatite, etc.) and three types of organic materials.
Organic materials are mainly collection of polymer materials, which are usually according to material attribute points for synthetic polymer materials (polyurethane, polyester, polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, lactic acid and glycolic acid copolymer and other medical synthetic plastics and rubber), natural polymer materials (such as collagen, silk protein, cellulose, chitosan);
According to the use of materials, these materials can be divided into biological inert (bioinert), biological activity (bioactive) or biological degradation (biodegradable) materials, polymer,
According to whether the degradation products can be metabolized and absorbed, degradation polymer can be divided for biological bioabsorbability and non absorbable.
According to the influence of material and blood contact on blood composition and performance, it is divided into blood compatible polymers and blood incompatibility.
According to the compatibility of the material to the body cell and reflecting the situation, can be divided into biological compatibility polymer and biocompatibility polymer, etc.
Biological materials are mainly used in the human body, its requirements are very strict, must have four characteristics:
1) The biological function, various biological materials vary with the use.
2) The biocompatibility can be summarized as interaction between materials and living, including blood compatibility and tissue compatibility (non-toxic, non carcinogenic, pyrogen reaction, no immunological rejection and).
3) The chemical stability, resistance to biological aging (particularly stable) or biodegradable (controllable degradation).
4) Processing, can form, disinfect (ultraviolet sterilization, high-pressure boiling, epoxy ethane gas disinfection, alcohol disinfection, etc.).
7. Performance Requirements
2) Mechanical properties
3) Resistance to biological aging
4) Forming processing performance
8. Impact on Humans
1) Local tissue reaction
Rejection reaction, calcification, infection, blood reaction, tumor
2) Immune response
9. Training Objectives
The program trains senior comprehensive technical personnel with knowledge of materials science and engineering, biology and medicine and other fields, master the biological material foundation and professional knowledge, can be engaged in biological materials preparation, modification, molding and application in the field of scientific research, technology development, process design, production and operation management, and has strong ability of the computer, access to information and the ability to use information, spirit of innovation.
10. Employment Prospects
The graduates can be engaged in management, product research and development, marketing sales, trade and other related fields of biological materials, medicine and other fields at research institutes, design institutes, tertiary institutions and enterprises.