Farming System, also known as crop system, refers to the integrated technical system of crop planting system and compatible system of soil management of a region or production unit.
Cropping system is a general term of crop composition configuration, maturation and cultivation method, including determine what kinds of crops to plant, where to plant, how much to plant, namely crop layout problem; a crop or several crops to plant one year, when to plant nothing or not to plant throughout the year, namely the problem of multiple cropping leisure; what kind of planting methods, namely monoculture, intercropping, mixed cropping, undercrop sowing or transplanting, crop rotation and continuous cropping problem.
Soil management system refers to a series of technical measures matching with cropping system to improve soil productivity, including basic construction of farmland, soil fertility, fertilizer and water management, soil tillage and farmland protection and so on.
The general term of crop cultivation mode and land use, soil management agricultural technology system is called farming system. It takes cropping systems and crop layout as the center, including the comprehensive use of soil tillage, cultivation, fertilization, irrigation, soil and water conservation and plant protection measures of agricultural technology. Agricultural geography pays much attention to the relationship between the natural environment, social economic conditions and farming systems.
Formation and development of farming system mainly depends on the level of social and economic development, and is closely related to the prevailing scientific and technological level and production management level, its development mainly through the abandoned cultivation, fallow, continuous cropping and rotation tillage system. Fallow tillage is a primitive nomadic system, namely farming land abandoned in the exhaustion of natural fertility after another land. With the progress of society and improvement of productivity, the society gradually enters the leisure farming system that tillage fallow for a year or two, by the natural recovery soil fertility after tillage. Since then, the development of continuous cropping system, that is, in the same piece of land on the same field for years to grow the same crop, strengthen the use of land. Due to continuous cropping system is not a balanced use of nutrients in the soil, long-term continuous cropping will cause soil failure, so rotation cropping system, that is, in the same piece of land at different time in turn rotate different (or the same crop rotation in turn in different plots), with the improvement of the level of intensive development, and for more than a year of ripe rotation, namely multiple cropping rotation system. Multiple cropping rotation system has intercropping, undercrop sowing and mixed cropping etc.
Farming system is the planting pattern taken according to the crop ecological adaptability and production conditions, including monoculture, multiple cropping, leisure, intercropping, undercrop sowing, mixed cropping, rotation cropping, continuous cropping, etc. The corresponding technical measures include the basic construction of farmland, irrigation, soil fertilization and tillage, pest and weed control, etc. Farming system is formed in a certain natural economic conditions, and with the development of productive forces and scientific and technological progress and the development of change.