Fishery Resources refer to the general term of economic animals and plants like fish, crustaceans, shellfish, algae and marine mammals in natural waters with the value of development and utilization, the natural source and foundation of fishery production, also known as the aquatic resources. According to the waters, fishery resources can be divided into inland waters fisheries resources and marine fisheries resources. Fish resources cover the main status, about 20 thousand kinds.
2. Resource Survey
Investigation into the breeding, growth, death, migration, distribution, quantity, habitat environment, development and utilization prospects and means of economic animal and plant individuals or groups in the waters is the basic work of fishery development and fishery resources management, consisting of two categories: management survey and development survey. The former is aimed at the developed fishing ground, which aims to make reasonable use of fishery resources in order to achieve the maximum sustainable yield. The latter is aimed at the unexplored waters, aimed at exploring new fishing targets and the corresponding development tools.
The documents that should be provided in the survey include:
1) The species composition of available fishing species and other aquatic economic animals and plants in the range of specific waters;
2) The time and location of the distribution of the population in the water area;
3) The number of available fish species or the extent to which it has been developed;
4) The development of appropriate technology and means;
5) The necessary production mode and reasonable developing production suggestions;
6) Suggestion of recovering and rationally utilizing over developed exploitation resources.
3. Resource Development
Among the fishery resources which have been developed and utilized, 70 percents directly supply to people to eat, such as fresh products, frozen products, canned and pickled, dried finished goods and so on; 30 percents are processed into products of comprehensive utilization of fish feed, industrial oil, medicinal cod liver oil and so on.
The degree of exploitation and utilization of fishery resources can be divided into
1) Depletion of utilization. It is difficult to restore the normal level of resources in a long period of time.
2) Excessive use. Namely, the resources have declined, but as long as take protective measures, it is still able to restore.
3) Make full use. That is able to adapt to the natural resources of natural regeneration, to maintain the best sustained output.
4) Have not made full use. Namely, resource utilization still has potential.
4. Resource Management
Resource management is the measure and method taken to maintain the reproduction ability of fishery resources and the optimum sustainable yield. Maintain reproduction ability refers to maintain economic aquatic basic ecological processes and life support systems and genetic diversity, its purpose is to ensure the sustainable utilization of human ecosystem and species of the maximum, the natural waters for human for a long time to provide a large number of aquatic products.
There are six management measures for fishery resources:
1) Regulate prohibited fishing areas and closed seasons
2) Regulate prohibited fishing gear and fishing method
3) Limit mesh size
4) Control the minimum body length of caught fishery
5) Limit the fishing power
6) Limiting catching quantity
5. Resource Proliferation
Resource proliferation is a measure to increase the number of aquatic organisms or to move into new populations by means of artificial methods, in order to improve the quantity and quality of aquatic products. Generalized also includes measures to increase the amount of resources in the waters of some indirect. Commonly used methods for the proliferation of fisheries resources:
1) The artificial releasing
2) Transplantation and acclimation
3) Improving water environment